12. Prior to 1977 constraints on the distant water fishery were minimal. The territorial sea was only three, later twelve nautical miles from shore. As eariv as 1949, it had become evident to the nations sharing this fishery that some form of regulation would be necessary to protect the stocks from overfishing. This led to the formation of the International Commission for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries ()CNAF) in 1951. For its first 20 years, ICNAF limited the regulation of its member fleets to a simple minimum mesh size. In 1971 it proposed the first overall quota for cod in the management zone. Through the early 1970s, ICNAF brought more species and stocks under nominal quota management, and the science of stock assessment improved. However, ICNAF was ineffective because of at least two classic problems of international environmental policy: quotas tended to be set at the "least common denominator" level because states unhappy with them could defect; and enforcement could only be done by the flag-states of the fishing vessels (Peterson 1993; Parsons 1993; Haas et al. 1993) .