Foreword by the Honorable Mike Gravel, US Senator                 

Preface - xii                                                                                      

I  Introduction - 3                                                                              

       The Dragon                                                                            




2 The United States and CBW: Policy "Roots" - 8                        

       Chemistry and Biology in War                                              

       The Geneva Protocol                                                                                  

       No First Use                                                                         

       Retreat from Policy                                                         

       The Cold War Buildup                                                       

       Dugway, 1968: The Turning Point                                     


3 The President's Statement - 24                                                   

The Chemical Arsenal: No First Use                                        

The Geneva Protocol: A Redefinition                                        

The Biological Arsenal                                                             

Biological Research: The Best Offense Is a Good Defense        


        Destruction of Germ Warfare Stockpiles                        



4 Mismanagement, Deception and Death - 39                             

       The Gas That Sailed                                                           

       Death in Maryland                                                             

       Earthquakes in Colorado                                                     

          What Shall We Do with a Concrete Coffin?                   

       Nowhere to Go                                                                    

5 Journey to the South - 63                                                            

       Introduction to Chemical Warfare                                     

       Germ Warfare                                                                       

       Nerve Gas: The Trump Card                                               

       An Exercise in Futility                                                        

       Stability Operations                                                              

          Drive Safely: Good Friends Are Hard to Find                 

       The Dragon                                                                         

6  Dragon on the Last Frontier - 85                                          

       VX Lake                                                                                

       Testing Tularemia in Alaska                                                          

       The Almost Test                                                                                                                        

7 CBW and Public Health in Alaska: An Appraisal - 109

        Death at Fort Greely                                                        

       Paralysis in Fairbanks                                                       

       Epidemiology: The Need for Further Research                 

       Biological Warfare Testing: A Special Horror                   


8 CBW, Secrecy and National Security - 127                                             

       Secrecy and Public Policy                                                    

       National Security: The Enemy Threat                               

       The Lesson of VX Lake                                                       


       A 135; B 137; C 148; D 164; E 169





§ § §




The basic problem is, we have a system, then, with a lot of people who don't know what it means to be accountable to the public. The Congress is the enemy, just as the press is the enemy. And the public is seen by members of the Executive in general as the great beast, treacherous, ignorant, irrational, not to be respected, either individually or in the mass.


- Daniel Ellsberg


…the only effective restraint upon the executive policy and power in the areas of national defense and international affairs may lie in an enlightened citizenry – in an informed and critical public opinion which alone here can protect the values of democratic government


- Potter Stewart, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, concurring in the Court’s decision to allow publication of the Pentagon Papers